1. What is Electro-chemistry?
2. Types of Electro-Chemical Cell?
3. Galvanic Cells
4. What are the Components of an electrochemical cell?
5. What is the Current flow pattern during charging and discharging?
6. What is lead acid Battery?
7. What is the overall reaction in an lead acid Battery?
8. What are the different types of batteries available?
9. How does a Lead Acid Battery operate?
10. What is Ampere Hour Capacity?
11. What is the rating of a Battery?
12. How to Check the Condition of the Battery?
13. What is specific gravity?
14. HOW TO USE HYDROMETER?
15. How to INSTAL A BATTERY?
16. What are AQUA TRAP VENT PLUGS?
17. How to STORE CHARGED BATTERIES?
18. What is TOPPING UP OF THE BATTERY?
19. What is BOOST CHARGE?
20. How is PERIODIC MAINTENANCE done?
21. HOW TO KNOW WEATHER THE BATTERY IS FULLY CHARGED?
22. Which type of Battery should I use for my UPS ?
23. Should the Battery be topped up with Acid / Water ?
24. How much of water should I add to the Battery?
25. What is IFC?
26. How is IFC done?
27. Can I keep the Battery in discharged condition?
28. How do you prepare an electrolyte?
29. What is electrolyte Specific Gravity of a fully charged cell?
30. How do you determine the Specific gravity of electrolyte?
31. What is temperature correction of electrolyte?
32. How do you prepare an electrolyte of certain specific gravity – Procedure?
33. Acid mixing Chart ?
34. HOW TO CLAIM WARRANTY?
35. Replacement of one or more units in a string  
36. Parallel String:
Care must be taken of the following points:
37. What is an U.P.S?
38. What is a Domestic Inverter?
39. What is an Off-Line U.P.S?
40. What is an On-Line U.P.S?
41. For a general computer use, which UPS should I buy?
42. How do I choose the UPS capacity?
43. What is the difference between VA and Watts?
1. What is Electro-chemistry?
Electro-Chemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with the chemical changes which occur due to the effect of Electric Current.

2. Types of Electro-Chemical Cell?
There are 2 types of Electro-chemical Cells
1. Which requires energy to be supplied to the system.
Ex: Electroplating Baths
2. Which can generate electricity. Which is also called as Galvanic / Voltaic Cell.
Ex: Dry Cells, Lead acid Cells

3. Galvanic Cells
There are three types of galvanic cell.
i. Primary galvanic cell (Irreversible)
ii. Secondary galvanic cell (Reversible)
iii. Fuel cell (It needs external fuel)

4. What are the Components of an electrochemical cell?
1 Positive (+ve)
2 Negative(-ve)
3 Separator
4 Electrolyte.

5. What is the Current flow pattern during charging and discharging?
• During charging, current flows from negative electrode to positive electrode. (-ve to +ve).
• During discharging, current flows from positive electrode to negative electrode. (+ve to –ve)

6. What is lead acid Battery?
Lead Acid Battery has Positive Electrode made up of Lead Peroxide (PbO2) and Negative Electrode made up of Spongy Lead (Pb). The electrolyte is Sulphuric acid.

7. What is the overall reaction in an lead acid Battery?


8. What are the different types of batteries available?
a. Tubular Batteries.
b. Valve Regulated lead Acid Batteries (VRLA)
c. Automotive Batteries.
d. Stationary Cells.
e. Air Craft Batteries.
f. Traction Batteries
g. Train Lighting Batteries.

9. How does a Lead Acid Battery operate?
When two electrodes of dissimilar metals are placed in an electrolyte, there will be a measurable potential difference at their terminals. In the lead acid system, one electrode of highly – oxidized lead (positive plates) and another of pure, spongy lead (negative plate) are immersed in the electrolyte (solution of distilled water and sulphuric acid).
The lead acid battery does not store electricity. It produces DC current and voltage through a chemical reaction within the cell. On discharge, the positive and negative plates change to lead sulphate. As a result, there is little flow and the cell is considered discharged. In actual practice, the discharge is stopped when the specific gravity of the electrolyte has decreased to about 1.100 at 270C or a terminal voltage of 10.5 for a 12V battery.
To recharge the battery, DC current is passed through it in the opposite direction, reversing the chemical action in the cells. This removes the sulphate from the positive and negative plates.
The charging returns the plates to their original state of charge and the electrolyte to its full value 1.240 specific gravity at 270C.

10. What is Ampere Hour Capacity?
It is the measure of electrochemical reaction in a cell. i.e. the quantity of electricity the battery delivers.

11. What is the rating of a Battery?
The Battery is rated as various types say: 10Hr rate, 5 Hr Rate etc. i.e. For ex: if we take an 100Ah battery at 10 Hr rate it means that you can discharge 10Amps of current continuously for 10 Hrs and not 100Amps for 1 Hour. If we discharge at any current higher than 10Amps the efficiency of the battery reduces.

The rating for different types of batteries are:
a. Automotive – 20Hr Rate
b. Tubular / Stationary – 10Hr Rate
c. Traction – 5Hr Rate
d. SMF – 20Hr Rate

12. How to Check the Condition of the Battery?
• The State of charge of any Battery can be understood by Checking Total Voltage, Cell Voltage and Cell Specific Gravity.
• The Total voltage of a fully charged battery on open circuit is > 12.3V for a 12V Battery
• The Specific Gravity of a fully charged cell is 1.240.

13. What is specific gravity?
Specific Gravity is the Weight of the given liquid with respect to the weight of water.
• Hydrometer is the instrument used to measure Specific Gravity
• Unit of measurement is g/cc

14. HOW TO USE HYDROMETER?
• Insert the rubber tube of the hydrometer in the cell you want to check
• Press the rubber bulb at the top of the hydrometer to suck the acid form the cell.
• The hydrometer float inside the glass barrel starts floating.
• The float should be free floating and should not touch the walls of glass barrel.
• Now read the reading on the hydrometer float which is corresponding to the acid level.
• The reading gives the direct specific gravity value of the acid.

15. How to INSTAL A BATTERY?
• The battery should be placed in a cool dry place.
• The battery should be placed on a wooden stand or a wooden plank.
• The transit plugs shipped with the battery should be removed and replaced with Aqua Trap Vent Plugs (Supplied).
• During connection care should be taken not to Short the Battery Terminals.
• The terminals should be covered with the Plastic Terminal Caps to avoid shorting due to external objects.
• Keep the battery top open. Do not cover with Plastic Cover.
• Apply Petroleum Jelly on the terminals.
• Keep the Bolt & Nuts tight.
• Check the Electrolyte level in all the cells, Cell voltage, Total Voltage.


16. What are AQUA TRAP VENT PLUGS?
• To minimize the evaporation of water the batteries are fitted with Aqua trap vent plugs made of Ceramic.
• These plugs trap the gases released during the normal charge / discharge cycle and enables condensation.
• If the pressure inside the cell rises above a prescribed limit it passes through the ceramic portion of the plug.
• To enable free movement of these gases the plugs should be kept clean, free from dust and other particles.
• The Plugs can be cleaned with free flowing water and drip dried.

17. How to STORE CHARGED BATTERIES?
• A fully charged battery can be stored up to 30 – 40 days.
• During storage see that the battery is stored in a cool place.
• Keep the top and the sides clean.
• After the specified storage period give the battery a freshening charge of about 5 – 6 Hrs at a rate of 10% of the battery Capacity.

18. What is TOPPING UP OF THE BATTERY?
• The batteries which are fitted with the float level indicators should be topped up when the indicator level drops down below Red mark and to be filled with D.M. Water up to the green mark.
• For the batteries with out float level indicators, the acid level should be up to 1- 1½ inch above the protector (White mesh) level.
• Care should be taken that the water level should not be less than the protector level and not more than 1½ inch above the protector.
• Always USE D.M. WATER. Never use Acid or Mineral water for topping up.

19. What is BOOST CHARGE?
• Some times the battery may be over discharged or will be left in the state of discharge for a long time. Such batteries will be difficult to charge with the solar panel or with small current.
• To bring the battery back to the normal condition Boost charge / Bench Charge should be done.

20. How is PERIODIC MAINTENANCE done?
• Check Total Voltage, Cell Voltages and Cell Specific Gravities.
• Check the electrolyte level and top up with D.M. Water if necessary.
• Clean the top and sides of the battery.
• Clean the vent plugs.
• Apply petroleum jelly to the terminals and connectors.

21. HOW TO KNOW WEATHER THE BATTERY IS FULLY CHARGED?
• During charging Hourly readings of Battery Voltages, Cell voltages and Cell Specific Gravities have to be recorded.
• The battery is fully charged when we get the same 3 Consecutive readings of Cell voltages and Cell Specific Gravities.

22. Which type of Battery should I use for my UPS ?
You can either use UPS / Tubular Batteries or VRLA Batteries (SMF). Tubular Batteries are preferred as its life is more and it can take up any type of abuses like over charge, deep discharge etc. This Battery comes fitted with aqua trap vent plugs which reduces the water loss. The main advantages of SMF Batteries are, there is no need of maintenance like topping up with D.M Water.

23. Should the Battery be topped up with Acid / Water ?
The Battery should be topped only with D.M Water. The acid should never be added.

24. How much of water should I add to the Battery?
The water should be added up to a level of 1" above the top plate surface.

25. What is IFC?
IFC means Initial Filling & Charging. Our Batteries normally comes in charged condition.

26. How is IFC done?
a. Wash all dirt from the battery and clean its terminals before placing it on charge. Do not allow dirt to get into the cells.
b. Fill the cells with battery grade sulphuric acid of 1.220 specific gravity at 270C.
c. Ensure that the level of acid is 6mm above the top of the protector.
d. Allow the cells to rest for 12 to 15 hrs after filling. After this, if topping is required, it should be done with some initial filling acid (i.e. 1.220)
e. Use direct current from a charging source suitably controlled, so that the current rate to the battery will not be excessive. The positive terminal of a battery is usually marked with a ‘+’ or a ‘P’.
f. Connect the positive lead from the charger to the positive terminal of the battery and the negative lead to the negative terminal. If several batteries are to be charged in series, they should be connected from the positive terminals of one to the negative terminals of another so that when the row of batteries is connected, there will be a positive and a negative terminal free for connecting the positive and negative charger leads respectively. Adjust the charging current according to the battery type.
g. The charging current should be about 5% of the rated capacity of the battery.
h. While charging, watch the temperature of the batteries carefully. If the temperature of any one of them reaches 450C reduce the rate of charging (i.e., half the rate of charging), or suspend charging till the temperature falls below the specific limit.
i. The usual duration of charging is around 80 – 100 hours. Charging should be continued till the voltage and specific gravity of each cell remains constant for three consecutive hourly readings and all cells gas freely.
j. If the specific gravity of all cells is not within five points of the desired value (1.230 to 1.235) at the end of full charge, remove some of the electrolyte with the hydrometer. Add distilled water to reduce the specific gravity if it is too high, or add 1.400 specific gravity acid to raise the gravity if it is too low. Continue charging so as to give the electrolyte a chance to mix. Note the specific gravity reading after another hour to note the effect of the addition. Continue this procedure till the specific gravity is brought to the desired value by charging for one hour after each adjustment.
k. Never adjust the specific gravity of a cell that does not gas freely on charge. Unless the electrolyte has been lost through spilling or leakage, it will not be necessary to add acid to a battery during its life.

(Please Note that warm electrolyte will have a low reading).


27. Can I keep the Battery in discharged condition?
No, the Battery should never be kept in the discharged condition. If left in the discharge condition for long time it will lead to sulphation of Battery plates which will be difficult to remove.

28. How do you prepare an electrolyte?
The electrolyte used for a lead acid battery is prepared with distilled water and sulphuric acid. The water used to prepare the electrolyte or to top up the battery should be free from chlorine and iron. The pH value of distilled water should be between 6.5 and 7. Do not use tap water or other contaminated water.

29. What is electrolyte Specific Gravity of a fully charged cell?
The electrolyte in completely charged battery usually has a specific gravity of 1.24 i.e. 1.24 times heavier than water at the same temperature.

30. How do you determine the Specific gravity of electrolyte?
The normal method for measuring the specific gravity in a battery is by using a syringe hydrometer. By pressing the rubber bulb, the electrolyte is drawn into the barrel and readings are taken at the lower point of meniscus. While taking the readings one must be sure that the hydrometer is floating freely in the electrolyte inside the barrel. The readings can be misleading if the temperature fluctuations are high. Since specific gravity is measured at a temperature of 270C, the electrolyte must be adjusted to this degree if temperature variations are high.

31. What is temperature correction of electrolyte?
The temperature correction of the electrolyte is 0.0007 for every degree rise or fall from 270C. For temperatures below 270C, the difference is multiplied by 0.0007 and subtracted from the specific gravity value. For temperatures above 270C, the difference is multiplied by 0.0007 and added to the specific gravity value.

32. How do you prepare an electrolyte of certain specific gravity – Procedure?
The electrolyte for the battery is prepared in a clean vessel made of porcelain, plastic or lead – lined tanks. No other metal vessel should be used. It is advisable not to use glass vessels, as they may break due to high temperature generated. While mixing the electrolyte, the acid should be poured into water and NEVER water into acid. Do this slowly and continuously, stirring with a wooden stick. Final adjustments should be made after the acid has cooled to room temperature.

33. Acid mixing Chart ?

When mixing by volume using 1.840 acid.
Desired specific gravity at
27 deg C
When mixing by volume using 1.400 acid.
Distilled Water required to one part acid
Distilled Water required to one part acid
2.8
1.280
0.45
2.9
1.270
0.53
3.0
1.260
0.6
3.09
1.255
0.64
3.17
1.250
0.67
3.35
1.240
0.75
3.55
1.230
0.82
3.68
1.225
0.86
3.8
1.220
0.9
4.3
1.200
1.1


34. HOW TO CLAIM WARRANTY?
The battery should be returned to the manufacturer or the nearest dealer within 15 days of the failure of the battery, in unopened condition with electrolyte along with the complaint details. The company reserves right to repair or replace the defective product.


35. Replacement of one or more units in a string
If more than 10% of the batteries in a single string are observed to be under-performing, then it is most possibly a case of:

- Incorrect sizing of battery
- Incorrect charge parameter

Whilst replacing one or two units in a string, care must be taken of the following points:

a. Do not replace one or two units in bank which has already performed for more than 18 months.

b. Replaced units will age fast and will not deliver the same life as it would have, if it was used in a fresh string.

36. Parallel String:
Care must be taken of the following points:

* UPS must have charging current available to charge multiple strings.
* Not more than three parallel strings are recommended for a set
* Paralleling of units of different makes is not recommended.
* Paralleling of different Ah capacities is not recommended.
* Paralleling of unequal age is acceptable with the caution that the new unit shall age faster and will not deliver the full service life.

37. What is an U.P.S?
U.P.S denotes Un-Interrupted Power Supply. This is small electronic equipment which supplies AC when there is power and when there is no power it converts DC supply from the Battery to AC & supply to all the items / gadgets connected to it.

38. What is a Domestic Inverter?
Domestic Inverter are used for lighting. It can power any general electrical items.

39. What is an Off-Line U.P.S?
Off-Line UPS is mainly for low end computer applications. UPS is designed mainly for computers. The change over time from mains to UPS supply is only few milli-seconds.

40. What is an On-Line U.P.S?
In On-Line UPS the supply is always from the inverter & there will be no change over from mains to UPS or from UPS to mains. This UPS is used for high end computer application, CNC Machines and other precise instruments.

41. For a general computer use, which UPS should I buy?
For a general computer use you can go in for Off-Line UPS. There are different models according to the customer’s requirements.

42. How do I choose the UPS capacity?
First write down your requirement (the points you need to be powered with the UPS).
Calculate the wattage of each point,
Tube light – 40 to 60 Watts.
Fan – 60 to 80 Watts.
Now add all the load and you will arrive at the total wattage required by you.

43. What is the difference between VA and Watts?
VA denotes Volt Amperes. 80% of VA is Watts. All our UPS are designed in terms of VA. To arrive at VA divide the load in Watts by 0.8 (Approx.)