The birth of lithium-ion batteries in the 1970s, pioneered by M. Stanley Whittingham, marked a watershed moment in energy storage innovation. These batteries gained prominence in 1991 sparking a revolution in portable electronics. Their evolution, recognized with a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2019, has driven advancements in cathodes, anodes, and electrolytes, revolutionizing devices from smartphones to electric vehicles. This technology continues to evolve, with ongoing research aiming to enhance performance, safety, and sustainability, reshaping how we harness and utilize energy in our modern world.
Lithium-ion batteries stand out for their high energy density, enabling more power in a smaller, lighter package, ideal for portable devices and electric vehicles. With longer lifespans, faster charging capabilities, and minimal self-discharge rates, they offer efficiency and convenience. Their versatility in size and shape, coupled with higher efficiency levels, makes them a top choice across various applications. While promoting sustainability with lower environmental impact compared to some alternatives, their adaptability and performance continue to drive innovation in modern energy storage solutions.
High starting power
Low antimony – selenium alloy offers low maintenance
High corrosion resistance
Low self discharge
Grids : The plates of the lead acid battery consists of an electrically – conducting grid framework, in the mesh of which the active materials are incorporated by an electro-chemical process. These grids serve to conduct the current to and from the active material of the positive and negative plate. The grids are made of an alloy consisting essentially of lead, antimony, selenium, arsenic and tin.
Positive Plates : The positive active material is in the form of lead peroxide. This is a dark brown crystalline material which consists of very small grains or particles. It provides a high degree of porosity and allows the electrolyte to penetrate the plates freely. This is designed with maximum surface area to provide more power & higher sustained voltage.
Negative Plates : The negative active material is in the form of porous mass of lead in spongy form through which the electrolyte can penetrate freely. It also contain expanders to prevent the spongy lead from contracting and reverting to solid inactive state during the life of the battery with maximum performance.
Separators : A sheet of non-conducting material called a separator is inserted between the positive and negative plates. Micro porous ribbed PVC construction facilitates maximum electrolyte contact. High porosity ensures negligible internal resistance. P.E. separators which have a very high porosity and very low internal resistance are also used.
Containers : The battery containers are of the moulded type, made of hard rubber.